Here at Alandi Ayurveda Clinic, we ask our patients to bring in their medications and supplements so we can see what they are taking. Many of our patients have digestive concerns and we see that a number of them are taking various over-the-counter digestive enzyme supplements. But do these supplements really work and are they the best way to support digestion?
First, not all enzyme supplements are created equal. Rarely, an individual may suffer from Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (EPI), a condition in which the pancreas is unable to make the enzymes needed to digest food. Autoimmune chronic pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis are two conditions that may cause EPI, a condition that affects roughly 8 per 100,000 men and 2 per 100,000 women. Patients diagnosed with this condition are in danger of severe, chronic malnutrition. These patients are treated with special prescription pancreatic enzymes that are 'enteric coated'--that is, they have a special coating that prevents them being digested in the stomach and allows them to work where they are needed, in the duodenum. On the other hand, OTC 'enzyme supplements' are not enteric coated and relatively little of what is taken will actually be active in the duodenum.
According to the teachings of Ayurveda, agni--your digestive fire is at the root of health. As the seminal Ayurvedic text, Charak Samhita says in discussing malabsorption issues:
Longevity, complexion, strength, health, enthusiasm, muscle-mass, lustre, immunity, energy...all these depend on agni. One dies if this fire is extinguished, lives long free from disorders if it is functioning properly, gets ill if it is deranged, hence agni is at the root cause of all. (CS, chi xv, 3-4).
So rather than trying to prop up a weak digestive fire by consuming digestive enzymes, it is more effective and helpful to turn that weak agni into strong agni. This is a process that has several steps: remove the cause, improve your diet, use herbs and home remedies to strengthen agni.
Remove the causes of your digestive disturbance by following these simple Agni Rules.
Eat food at room temperature or slightly above
Allow three hours between meals to allow digestion to be complete before adding new food to the system
Don't drink and eat at the same time. Drink half hour before or two hours after eating.
Use proper food combining.
Relax after eating to allow for proper digestion.
Don't eat and then sleep--wait two hours.
Don't eat and then exercise--wait two hours.
Don't eat and then meditate--Leave one hour.
Follow the diet appropriate to your constitution and the season.
Improve your diet by focusing on warm, soupy and well-cooked foods such as soups, stews, kitcheri and dal. Using spices such as ginger, turmeric, cumin, coriander,fennel, cardamom, fenugreek, cinnamon and clove in your food will enhance digestion. Studies show that these spices help improve our body's natural secretion of pancreatic enzymes. Rosemary, sage and oregano are beneficial too.
Use home remedies and herbs to convert a weak digestive fire into a strong one.
CCF Tea: At Alandi we encourage our students and patients to drink CCF tea. Mix one-third teaspoon each of cumin, coriander and fennel 'seeds' in a cup of water, boil until the seeds sink and strain. Drink after meals to aid digestion or to relieve colic. This tea is also a great way to help get adequate iron and calcium in your diet. You can also use this tea to bring down a fever.
Agni Kindler: Grate fresh ginger and fresh turmeric, add a squeeze of lime and some salt. Eat half a teaspoon a few minutes before meals to improve digestion. If you can't get fresh turmeric root, you can make the remedy with ginger, lime and salt.
Chewing Spice (like in an Indian restaurant but minus the sugar and colouring): chew ½tsp. roasted fennel and cumin seeds after each meal.
If you continue to have issues such as gas and bloating despite using these remedies, your agni issues may be more complex, or there may be underlying causes such as parasites or food intolerances. An Aurvedic Practitioner will help unravel the underlying cause and provide individually tailored remedies to improve your digestion.
Lord of Ayurveda,Dhanvantari (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Amid the vast swirl of new information I've been working and playing with during these first eight
weeks studying Ayurvedic medicine at Alandi, the clinic experience has been the most profoundly affecting.
Observing and interacting with patients on a regular basis provides grounding
and human context for the timeless theory and Sanskrit vocabulary, which might otherwise tend
towards academic abstraction. I have gleaned many useful facts and practical principles so far, but here I will focus on the broader issues that are
making an impression on me.
point I've observed (and experienced) in these sessions is that the presenting
health concern is often a secondary or even tertiary issue. Many people are
simply craving to be truly seen and heard.
It seems that a person's innate capacity
for self-healing is activated by the attentive presence of the practitioner,
through the exchange of deep listening and empathetic response. This process
allows the more subtle causes of dis-ease to emerge and become self-evident to
In being that clear mirror, the practitioner creates an
opportunity for the patient to notice patterns and connections that were previously
invisible to them. On its own, such awareness can stimulate positive shifts
within a person.
The other major
issue I had not previously considered is that of compliance.
In an imaginary,
ideal world, healing is a clean process where expert diagnosis leads to a prescription for
herbs and adjustments to diet and lifestyle. Then, we simply wait for the patient to return with reports of steady
This obviously skips
over the most crucial step -- that is, the patient actually
doing what is asked.
Ayurveda requires a certain level of dedication and
willingness to do whatever it takes in order to be effective. By this
measurement, not everyone is qualified for Ayurvedic treatment.
individuals are more comfortable with their disease than with the procedures
for treating it, and would therefore prefer to remain ill rather than venture
outside their comfort zone.
This is mostly an unconscious choice. Deeply ingrained patterns of behavior are
powerful forces. Just because a person is seeking healing on the surface
doesn't necessarily mean they are able to comply with the changes prescribed.
this in mind, it has been valuable to observe Ma as she gently "coaxes"
compliance from patients. Some people need more stern instructions, while
others do well with some flexibility. Some folks are eager to do everything all
at once, while others can only introduce one thing at a time.
person's mental and physical constitution is helpful, but coaxing is more art
than science, and involves a good deal of intuitive feeling into the situation to know what is realistic, and what is
asking too much.
Finally, I will
note how humbling it is to sit in clinic. It is a regular reminder that
everyone is fighting unseen battles and should therefore be treated with the
gentlest of care.
It is a very powerful experience to have someone bare their
deepest traumas, share their oldest secrets and express their greatest hopes
and fears with the hope that you can help them. It is a responsibility not to
be taken lightly, and serves as inspiration for me to learn as much as possible as fast as possible so as
to actually be able to help.
There is also a dampening effect as I realize that
we can't possibly help everyone to the extent that we would like, that each
person must take responsibility for their own healing, and all we can do is
offer the best guidance we can and pray the rest will unfold in the most
benevolent manner possible.
This is heartbreaking, but then again, a heart must break
in order to be open, and as we've seen, an open heart is truly the most potent
medicine available to us.
An overview of thyroid diseases The thyroid is an endocrine gland situated in the neck at the level of the cricoid cartilage at the base of the larynx and extending from the level of the fifth cervical vertebra down to the first thoracic. It is butterfly shaped with 2 elongated lateral lobes with superior and inferior poles connected by a median isthmus. The gland contains two hormones, L-thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine, T4) and L-triiodothyronine (T3). Affecting between one and two percent of the population worldwide, thyroid disease is among the most common endocrine disorders. Thyroid disorders and thyroid cancer disproportionately affect women.
Skin inflammations are quite common conditions, with atopic dermatitis or eczema affecting 10-20% of all children and 1-3% of adults (1) and psoriasis affecting between 2 and 2.6% of the US population. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis has doubled or tripled in industrialized countries during the past three decades. The visible and often disfiguring nature of skin inflammations leads to far greater levels of distress and depression than would be experienced with a more severe but less disfiguring condition. (2) Because a number of patients are suspicious of cortisone creams prescribed for them by their family practitioner or dermatologist, they may frequently present for Ayurvedic care as an alternative.
According to Ayurveda, skin has seven layers, corresponding to the seven dhatus. Similarly, in modern physiology, skin has been found to have seven layers, stratum corneum, on the surface, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale, the basement membrane and the dermis. (For a diagram of the seven layers of the skin, click here.) At the same time, the epidermis of the skin, as whole, is seen as an upadhatu of rasa dhatu, and the dermis as part of mamsa dhatu. Skin belongs to bahya marga, the external pathway of disease, and as such is very vulnerable to toxins carried by rasa and rakta dhatus during the prasara stage of disease, accounting for the relatively common nature of skin inflammations.
In the Ayurvedic approach to sinusitis, exposure to an infective agent such as pathogenic bacteria is just one factor in the development of the illness. Of far greater significance is the build up of excess doshas in the body, due to incorrect diet and lifestyle. Once excess doshas have built up and become prevalent due to repeated errors in daily regimen, they are readily carried by vata upwards to the head, where they lodge in any weak spot, creating acute illness. Unfortunately, due to today's polluted environment, the integrity of the mucus membranes of the nasal sinuses is under constant attack. Thus weakened, the sinuses are particularly vulnerable to invasion by provoked doshas. It is the unwholesome situation created by a combination of weakened sinuses, accumulation of doshas and build-up of ama or toxins in the body that provides a fertile ground for the multiplication of pathogens.
Sinusitis, as an inflammatory condition, always involves some component of pitta, the fiery humour. However, provocation of either vata or kapha within the sinuses can give rise to pitta irritation of the mucous membranes. Sinus infections thus can be regarded as either vata, pitta or kapha in nature, each type having specific causative factors and symptoms.
Silent bladder infections, also known as asymptomatic bacteruria, may result in generalized ill health or may lead to acute cystitis or to pyelonephritis, a potentially life-threatening kidney infection. Hence it is important to appreciate the groups affected by silent bladder infection, as well as how to make an Ayurvedic diagnosis of this condition and give appropriate chikitsa.
Addiction to sugar is a significant cause of overweight, obesity, diabetes, dental caries, candidiasis and adrenal deficiency. In addition, by lowering immunity, white sugar may contribute to the incidence of cancer and acute and chronic infections. Although white sugar as an addiction of choice affects all ages from infancy on, individuals born in the 1950s are particularly susceptible, due to the prevalence of sweetened infant formula at that period. All types of agni may be involved in sugar cravings, but the nature, consequences and management of sugar addiction differs depending upon the agni type.
In this article, we will consider candidiasis as a condition of kapha ama, reviewing the epidemiology, diagnosis and Ayurvedic management of this common condition.
Candida is a unicellular yeast whose cells reproduce by budding. A normal flora which can under certain circumstances become an invasive pathogen, it can flourish in most environments. Candida species frequently colonize the oropharynx, skin, mucous membranes, pranavahasrotas (lower respiratory tree), annavahasrotas (gastrointestinal tract) and mutravahasrotas (genitourinary tract). Candida can be found on foods, countertops, air-conditioning vents, and floors (6).
A discussion of candidiasis leads us to larger look at considerations of the ways in which epidemiology has changed from classical times until now. Many factors pertinent to the development of Candida overgrowths are relevant to modern industrial society and were not in effect in ancient times. These factors include a diet high in refined sugar and refined flour products, antibiotic therapy, environmental stresses that weaken immunity including EMFs (1), ELF radiation (2), chemical toxins and increased background radiation; sedentary lifestyles (3), epidemic obesity (4), development of immunodeficiency diseases such as HIV, and medical use of immunosuppressant therapies including inhaled corticosteroids. All these factors play a part in the frequency with which candidal conditions are seen in a typical Ayurvedic practice setting. Patients with endocrine disorders including diabetes, hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency are at increased risk for Candida overgrowth (6).
April - Average sunrise - 6:30am, average sunset - 7:45pm; Temperature range 62-34, average 53.
May - Average sunrise - 5:45am, average sunset - 8:00pm; Temperature range 71-44, average 61
Weather - Wide range of weather patterns, and large temperature changes. Can be very warm and sunny, or cold. April and May are often some of the wettest months in the year, with snow storms or thunderstorms. May experience windy periods as well.
Kapha - during late spring Kapha has accumulated is liquefied by the increasing heat, which can disturb the digestive system. Kapha can become provoked during precipitation, snowy days and cloudy rainy days
To minimize Kapha:
warming, drying, and activating foods
Pungent, bitter, and astringent tastes
Honey and hot herbal teas
Vegetarian, low-fat diet
Limit oils - Sesame oil and flax seed oil can be used minimally
Vegetables, grains, and beans, cooked and well-spiced
One salad per day
Whole grain crackers and toasted breads of millet, quinoa, and corn
Sweet fruits (e.g. figs, grapes and raisins, dates, blueberries, red raspberries, Babcock peaches, apples, pears, mango, and coconut.)
Bitter and astringent herbal teas and nonalcoholic beers and wines
Reduce or avoid:
Excessive sour, oily, salty, and fried foods
Red meat, shellfish fish
Alcohol, caffeine, and soda pop
Excessively hot spices, such as cloves, mustard, onion, garlic, chilies, radish, and cayenne.
Frequent use of acidic fruits, juices, and vegetables: tomatoes, beets, eggplant, corn, carrots, hot leafy greens, papayas, pineapple, citrus (except limes), and vinegar.
Vata - During late spring Vata can be aggravated by the highly changeable conditions and dry windy days
To minimize Vata:
Cooked, warm, soupy, moderate to heavy foods, soothing and satisfying
Plenty of healthy oils (monounsaturates, sesame oil, ghee, butter, nut butters, and EFAs) - avoid hydrogenated oils, other saturated and polyunsaturated oils
Natural sweet, sour, and salty tastes and flavorful sauces
Carminative spices such as basil, oregano, ginger, cardamom, cinnamon, cumin, pippali, coriander, and dill.
Protein-rich diet of animal products: ghee, warm milk, yogurt, cooked cheese, buttermilk, kefir, eggs, etc, as well as the grains like quinoa, corn, and basmati rice, and easily digested nuts and sesame seeds
Best fruits and juices: tomato, pomegranate, carrot, fresh-squeezed orange and grapefruit, apricot, peach, strawberry, raspberry, and vegetable juices
Lots of fresh veggies (cooked are easier to digest for Vata): pumpkin, carrots, beets, green leafy veggies, avocado, broccoli, baked potato, winter squash, tomatoes, etc.
Reduce or Avoid:
Caffeine, white sugar, and soda
Excessive use of beans and heavy grains (prepare them with ghee and spices)
Dry foods taken alone, large amounts of raw vegetables
Taking foods and drinks colder than room temperature
Late spring is a time of changing weather and release of accumulated kapha in the body, so digestion can be especially delicate, it can be especially important to follow agni rules at this time
Follow agni rules
Proper food combining
Drink ginger tea in the morning (fresh for vata and pitta, dry for kapha)
Take Agni kindler before meals
Drink CCF tea after meals
Movement: vigorous exercise daily (ex. jogging, aerobics etc), strength training, engage in new activities and mental challenges
Do not skip meals, and do not fast. The Kapha digestive agni tends to be low, as does appetite, and not eating on time slows down the metabolism even more. Start your day with a light breakfast. Eat a sustaining meal at lunch, and a lighter meal for dinner.
Vigorous oil massage with warming oil
Protect yourself from the damp and cold. Drink lots of warm water, infused with warming spices such as turmeric, dried ginger and black pepper. At-home steam therapy can help open clogged channels.
Go to bed early and wake up really early in the morning, 90 minutes before sunrise, do not indulge in daytime snoozes.
Stay cool--both physically and emotionally. Avoid going out in the heat of the day, especially on an empty stomach or after you have eaten tangy or spicy foods. Avoid exercising when it's hot. Walk away from situations that make you see red.
Do not skip meals, do not fast and do not wait to eat until you are ravenously hungry. You want to keep the fire burning at a moderate temperature, you don't want to put the fire out or to stoke it too high.
Daily oil massage with moderate to cooling oil
Water-based activities are ideal exercise for Pitta-dominant people. Try swimming or aqua-aerobics to stay fit but cool. Strolling after sunset, especially along a waterfront, is also a soothing way to fit some leisurely activity into your day.
Go to bed early, rise 60 minutes. Make sure to turn off the computer or TV by 10pm and turn the lights out. A cup of warm milk, with some cardamom, can be helpful before bedtime.
Balance work and play. Set aside some time for R&R everyday, and do not get so absorbed in a project that you are unable to detach from it.
Establish a daily routine. Go to bed and rise at same time (30 min before sunrise). Regulate meal times, eat even if not hungry to establish routine. Don't skip meals.
Foods and drinks that nourish
Daily oil massage with warming oil such as sesame
Light to moderate daily activity (don't over do and exhaust self) - slow classical vinyasa, swimming, dancing, bike riding
Keep warm, stay out of wind.
Flatirons with Spring flowers (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
we looked at easily curable conditions of prana vaha srotas as well as those
curable with difficulty.This month, we
will look at chronic (yapya) conditions of prana vaha srotas and also mention
briefly how to be aware of potentially fatal conditions.
extremely common yapya respiratory condition is chronic rhinitis, affecting as
many as 40% of the US population. One of the world's most common chronic
disorders, rhinitis affects the entire spectrum of life from infancy to old age
(1). Sushrut discusses thirty-one diseases of the nose, including Apinasa
(rhinitis) and pratishaya (nasal catarrh)(2). Apinasa is classified as a
disease of vata and kapha (2). Pratishaya with dryness, hoarsenss, temporal
headache and nasal obstruction arises from Vata (3), with thirst, yellowish
nasal discharge and a feeling of hot smoky breath, pitta is involved (4) and
with thick white or yellowish catarrh, swollen eyes, heaviness and itchy throat
and palate, kapha is implicated.
From a modern standpoint, classification of rhinitis
is less based on clinical presentation and more on etiology. Rhinitis is either
allergic or non-allergic. Allergic rhinitis results from IgE reactivity to both
outdoor, seasonal allergens such as pollens and indoor allergens including
moulds, house dust and animal dander. It is often associated with another
chronic condition of prana vaha srotas, asthma. (See http://www.alandiashram.org/school/school_html/reviews/bronchial_asthma.html
for a previous Vine discussion of asthma). While allergic rhinitis is common in
infants, children and young adults (5), non-allergic rhinitis becomes
increasingly prevalent in older adults and is more common in women (1).
Although there are many etiologies of non-allergic rhinitis, some of the most
common include chronic sinusitis, allergic fungal sinusitis, eosinophilic nasal
polyps (6) and deviated nasal septum.For
an in depth treatment of chronic sinusitis and allergic fungal sinusitis see archived
Vine article http://www.alandiashram.org/school/school_html/reviews/chronic_sinusitis.html.
Irritants such as dust, smoking and household cleaning agents can cause or
contribute to rhinitis, as expressed by both Madhava and current medicine (7,
8). Hormonal causes of non-allergic rhinitis include pregnancy, menstruation,
puberty and hormone replacement therapy as well as hypothroidism (8).
As we review
the various ways of classifying rhinitis, we can see that the Western medicine
classifications are more useful in terms of Western treatments. For example,
allergic rhinitis would respond to anti-histamines whereas other kinds will
not. By the same token, Sushrut's symptom based classification is more useful
for Ayurvedic treatment since it points to the dosha involved and hence to the
with chronic rhinitis frequently present for Ayurvedic treatment as an
alternative to steroidal and non-steroidal nasal sprays and systemic antihistamines.
Indeed, the persistent nature of this condition has led doctors, as well as
patients, to look 'outside the box' for adjuvant therapies. As an example, a
friend of mine recently visited National Jewish Hospital in Denver, one of the
premier respiratory hospitals, only to be told to increase his use of the nasal
rinse cup from once to twice a day! A number of studies have been done,
demonstrating the effect of jala neti or saline irrigation using a nasal rinse
cup. As one abstract puts it, "The use of nasal irrigation for the
treatment of nose and sinus complaints has its foundations in yogic and
homeopathic traditions. It is often prescribed as an adjunct to other
treatments such as intranasal steroids or antibiotics. ...This review summarises the
evidence for the effect of saline irrigations in the management of the symptoms
of chronic rhinosinusitis. There is evidence that they relieve symptoms, help
as an adjunct to treatment and are well tolerated by the majority of patients.
While there is no evidence that saline is a replacement for standard therapies,
the addition of topical nasal saline is likely to improve symptom control in
patients with persistent sino-nasal disease....There are no significant
side-effects reported in trials."(9)
study also indicated that "Endonasal irrigations with salt solutions are
effective in the treatment of chronic sinusitis," (10) and an Australian study
investigating nasal irrigation showed that neti, also known as nasal douche,
was more effective than nasal sprays or nebulizers and effectively reached the
maxillary sinuses and frontal recesses. The sphenoidal and frontal sinuses are
not easily reached by irrigation methods. (11).
While local use of oils and herbs in the form of nasya have
not been investigated to the same extent, some recent studies published by
Gujerat Ayurved University indicate that nasya therapies are effective in both
allergic and atropic rhinitis. Local (nasal) administration of herb via nasya was effective in giving
immediate relief of signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis and can best be
paired with longer acting systemic herbs such as turmeric. (12). Nasya is also
effective in atropic (non-allergic ) rhinitis (13).
in terms of asthma, there has been a search for adjuvant therapies for this
chronic condition. Steam inhalation, using natural mineral saline is one
valuable adjuvant. The Ayurvedic use of steam and herbal smokes for
administering medicines directly to the lungs is the precursor of today's
asthma inhalers (14). Yoga therapy is also valuable in managing asthma. "Forty six young asthmatics with a history of
childhood asthma were admitted for yoga training. Effects of training on
resting pulmonary functions, exercise capacity, and exercise-induced bronchial
lability index were measured. Yoga training resulted in a significant increase
in pulmonary function and exercise capacity. A follow-up study spanning two
years showed a good response with reduced symptom score and drug requirements
in these subjects. It is concluded that yoga training is beneficial for young
Herbal therapies of course are also effective for asthma,
including Boswellia (16) and kapi kacchu (17). Ayurvedic and yogic therapies
including neti, nasya, steam inhalation herbal smokes, yoga therapy and oral
herbs can be of tremendous use in enhancing quality of life for patients with
chronic prana vaha srotas conditions and reducing the amount of medications
they need to use.
With regard to fatal conditions of prana vaha srotas, lung
cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death both in the United
States and throughout the world (18). Ayurvedic practitioners as well as
primary care physicians should be highly suspicious in the case of any person
with a history of smoking who presents with cough, breathlessness or wheezing
or simply fatigue and malaise. A pneumonia or bronchitis may be more than it
seems as lung cancer may frequently present as pneumonia or bronchitis. Swift
referral for chest X ray is vital to avoid overlooking cancer. Patients with a
history of coal mining or working in or living near an asbestos plant should
also be treated with great caution in the event of a history of cough as they
too are susceptible to lung cancer. And of course, one should not forget
spouses of chain smokers, who may have been exposed to a lifetime of
carcinogenic second and third-hand smoke. Tridoshic disturbance of overall
vikruti, of the lung pulse or of the rasa dahtu pulse can lead the Ayurvedic
practitioner suspect lung cancer, although these same pulse findings may also
hold good in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
To give some examples, some years ago a fifty-year-old woman
presented with a non-specific complaint of "feeling unwell". She had never smoked
cigarettes, although she was a marijuana smoker. However, her husband was a
former chain-smoker. A few weeks later, she presented with cough and
breathlessness and tridoshic disturbance in her lung pulse. Suspecting
pneumonia, we referred her to her primary care practitioner, who diagnosed
bronchitis and sent her home with antibiotics.Days later she was admitted to hospital with for pneumonia and within
three months she had died of advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma.This story serves to remind us of how
nebulous the initial presentation of lung cancer may be.
A seventy five year old former smoker complained of chest
pain during winter and was diagnosed with pneumonia and put on antibiotics. Bronchoscopy
revealed Stage IV adenocarcinoma of the lungs and she presented for Ayurvedic
adjuvant therapy alongside her chemotherapy. She went into remission for some
time but recently, again in winter, developed cough and breathlessness and was
found to have a pleural effusion, which may be malignant in origin. This case
history too illustrates how difficult it is to diagnose lung cancer until a
late stage of the condition and how closely its symptoms can mimic typical
Ayurvedic practitioners can facilitate considerable
improvements in quality of life for patients suffering from chronic conditions
of prana vaha srotas. When working with respiratory conditions, it is important
to take note of lung cancer risk factors and to be aware that this condition can
present as a typical winter chest infection.
14.Mark Sanders Inhalation
therapy: an historical review Primary Care Respiratory Journal (2007) 16(2): 71-81
15.S. C. Jain; L. Rai; A. Valecha; U. K. Jha; S. O. D.
Bhatnagar; K. RamEffect of Yoga Training on Exercise Tolerance
in Adolescents with Childhood Asthma Journal of Asthma,
Volume Issue 6 December
1991 , pages 437 - 442
Mallaiah, GK | Thirupathi, K | Ganapaty, S | Rao, PT | Mohan, GK Phytochemical
and AntimicrobialStudies on the Seeds of Mucuna Monosperma DC Current Trends in
Biotechnology and Pharmacy. Vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 442-446. Jul 2008.